Published in 2019
- Stromal Fibroblasts Drive Host Inflammatory Responses That Are Dependent on Chlamydia trachomatis Strain Type and Likely Influence Disease Outcomes
- Authors: Jolly AL, Rau S, Chadha AK, Abdulraheem EA, Dean D
- Journal: mBio
- Chlamydia trachomatis is a human pathogen and the leading cause of preventable blindness and sexually transmitted diseases in the world. Certain C. trachomatis strains cause ocular disease, while others cause upper genital tract pathology. However, little is known about the cellular or immunologic basis for these differences. Here, we compared the abilities of the strain types to infect, replicate, and initiate an immune response in primary human ocular and urogenital epithelial cells, as well as in fibroblasts from the underlying stroma. While there were no significant differences in infection rates or intracellular growth for any strain in any cell type, proinflammatory responses were driven not by the epithelial cells but by fibroblasts and were distinct between ocular and urogenital strains. Our findings suggest that primary fibroblasts are a novel and more appropriate model for studies of immune responses that will expand our understanding of the differential pathological disease outcomes caused by various C. trachomatis strain types.
Published in 2018
- A role for glutamine 183 in the folate oxidative half-reaction of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli.
- Authors: Zuo C, Jolly AL, Nikolova AP, Satzer DI, Cao S, Sanchez JS, Ballou DP, Trimmer EE
- Journal: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
- The flavoprotein methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) from Escherichia coli catalyzes a ping-pong reaction with NADH and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (CH2-H4folate) to produce NAD+ and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate). This work focuses on the function of the invariant, active-site aminoacyl residue Gln183. X-ray structures of the enzyme complexes Ered(wild-type)•NADH and Eox(Glu28Gln)•CH3-H4folate indicate that Gln183 makes key hydrogen-bonding interactions with both NADH and folate in their respective half-reactions, suggesting roles in binding each substrate. We propose that the polarity of Gln183 may also aid in stabilizing the proposed 5-iminium cation intermediate during catalysis in the oxidative half-reaction with folate. We have prepared mutants Gln183Ala and Gln183Glu, which we hypothesize to have altered charge/polarity and hydrogen bonding properties. We have examined the enzymes by steady-state and stopped-flow kinetics and by measurement of the flavin redox potentials. In the reductive half-reaction, NADH binding affinity and the rate of flavin reduction have not been hindered by either mutation. By contrast, our results support a minor role for Gln183 in the oxidative half-reaction. The Gln183Ala variant exhibited a 6-10 fold lower rate of folate reduction and bound CH2-H4folate with 7-fold lower affinity, whereas the Gln183Glu mutant displayed catalytic constants within 3-fold of the wild-type enzyme.
Published in 2017
- Corneal surface glycosylation is modulated by IL-1R and Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge but is insufficient for inhibiting bacterial binding
- Authors: Jolly AL, Agarwal P, Metruccio MME, Spiciarich DR, Evans DJ, Bertozzi CR, Fleiszig SMJ
- Journal: FASEB J
- Cell surface glycosylation is thought to be involved in barrier function against microbes at mucosal surfaces. Previously we showed that the epithelium of healthy mouse corneas becomes vulnerable to Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion if it lacks the innate defense protein MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), or after superficial injury by blotting with tissue paper. Here we explored their effect on corneal surface glycosylation using a metabolic label, tetra-acetylated N-azidoacetylgalactosamine (Ac4GalNAz). Ac4GalNAz treatment labeled the surface of healthy mouse corneas, leaving most cells viable, and bacteria preferentially associated with GalNAz-labeled regions. Surprisingly, corneas from MyD88-/- mice displayed similar GalNAz labeling to wild-type corneas, but labeling was reduced and patchy on IL-1 receptor (IL-1R)-knockout mouse corneas (P < 0.05, ANOVA). Tissue paper blotting removed GalNAz-labeled surface cells, causing DAPI labeling (permeabilization) of underlying cells. MS of material collected on the tissue paper blots revealed 67 GalNAz-labeled proteins, including intracellular proteins. These data show that the normal distribution of surface glycosylation requires IL-1R, but not MyD88, and is not sufficient to prevent bacterial binding. They also suggest increased P. aeruginosa adhesion to MyD88-/- and blotted corneas is not due to reduction in total surface glycosylation, and for tissue paper blotting is likely due to cell permeabilization.
Published in 2016
- A Genome-wide RNAi Screen for Microtubule Bundle Formation and Lysosome Motility Regulation in Drosophila S2 Cells
- Authors: Jolly AL, Luan CH, Dusel BE, Dunne SF, Winding M, Dixit VJ, Robins C, Saluk JL, Logan DJ, Carpenter AE, Sharma M, Dean D, Cohen AR, Gelfand VI
- Journal: Cell Reports
- Long-distance intracellular transport of organelles, mRNA, and proteins (“cargo”) occurs along the microtubule cytoskeleton by the action of kinesin and dynein motor proteins; the vast network of factors involved in regulating intracellular cargo transport are still unknown. We capitalize on the Drosophila melanogaster S2 model cell system to monitor lysosome transport along microtubule bundles, which require enzymatically active kinesin-1 motor protein for their formation. We use an automated tracking program and a naïve Bayesian classifier for the multivariate motility data to analyze 15,683 gene phenotypes, and find 98 proteins involved in regulating lysosome motility along microtubules and 48 involved in the formation of microtubule filled processes in S2 cells. We identify innate immunity genes, ion channels and signaling proteins having a role in lysosome motility regulation, and find an unexpected relationship between the dynein motor, Rab7a and lysosome motility regulation.
Published in 2015
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced bleb-niche formation in epithelial cells is independent of actinomyosin contraction and enhanced by loss of CFTR osmoregulatory function.
- Authors: Jolly AL, Takawira D, Oke OO, Whiteside SA, Chang SW, Wen ER, Quach K, Evans DJ, Fleiszig SM
- Journal: mBio
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen problematic in hospitalized patients and those with cystic fibrosis (CF). Previously, we showed that P. aeruginosa can enter epithelial cells and replicate within them and traffics to the membrane blebs that it induces. This "bleb-niche" formation requires ExoS, previously shown to cause apoptosis. Here, we show that the driving force for bleb-niche formation is osmotic pressure, differentiating P. aeruginosa-induced blebs from apoptotic blebs. Either CFTR inhibition or CFTR mutation (as seen in people with CF) causes P. aeruginosa to make more bleb niches and provides an osmotic driving force for blebbing. CFTR inhibition also enhances bacterial occupation of blebs and intracellular replication. Since CFTR is targeted for removal from the plasma membrane when P. aeruginosa invades a healthy cell, these findings could relate to pathogenesis in both CF and healthy patient populations.
Published in 2011
- Bidirectional intracellular transport: utility and mechanism.
- Authors: Jolly AL, Gelfand VI
- Journal: Biochemical Society Transactions
- Bidirectional transport of intracellular cargo along microtubule tracks is the subject of intense debate in the motility field. In the present review, we provide an overview of the models describing the possible mechanisms driving intracellular saltatory transport, taking into account current experimental results that may at first seem contradictory. We examine the phenomenon of saltatory motion, in an attempt to interpret the mechanistic debate in terms of the utility of saltatory motion.
Published in 2010
- Kinesin-1 heavy chain mediates microtubule sliding to drive changes in cell shape.
- Authors: Jolly AL, Kim H, Srinivasan D, Lakonishok M, Larson AG, Gelfand VI
- Journal: PNAS
- Microtubules are typically observed to buckle and loop during interphase in cultured cells by an unknown mechanism. We show that lateral microtubule movement and looping is a result of microtubules sliding against one another in interphase Drosophila S2 cells. RNAi of the kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC), but not dynein or the kinesin-1 light chain, eliminates these movements. KHC-dependent microtubule sliding powers the formation of cellular processes filled with parallel microtubule bundles. The growth of these cellular processes is independent of the actin cytoskeleton. We further observe cytoplasmic microtubule sliding in Xenopus and Ptk2 cells, and show that antibody inhibition of KHC in mammalian cells prevents sliding. We therefore propose that, in addition to its well established role in organelle transport, an important universal function of kinesin-1 is to mediate cytoplasmic microtubule-microtubule sliding. This provides the cell with a dedicated mechanism to transport long and short microtubule filaments and drive changes in cell shape.
Published in 2010
- Cytoplasmic microtubule sliding: An unconventional function of conventional kinesin.
- Authors: Jolly AL, Gelfand VI
- Journal: Communicative & Integrative Biology
- There are well known examples in nature of microtubules dramatically changing their function by re-organizing their structure. Most interphase animal cells rely on the radial organization of the microtubule network for precise cargo delivery. Dividing cells re-organize microtubules with the help of motor proteins to form the spindle and drive the segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells. These examples present a kind of dichotomy: microtubules can be utilized as stationary tracks along which motor proteins move, or they can perform work themselves by utilizing the power of motor proteins. While both occur during mitosis, our recent findings demonstrate that both functions may occur simultaneously in interphase cells as well. We find that kinesin-1 (a motor known for its role in transporting cargo along microtubule tracks) powers microtubule sliding in non-dividing cells and this mechanism is used to form cellular protrusions.
Published in 2008
- Motor-cargo release: CaMKII as a traffic cop
- Authors: Ally S, Jolly AL, Gelfand VI
- Journal: Nature Cell Biology
- Comment on: Disruption of KIF17-Mint1 interaction by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation: a molecular model of kinesin-cargo release. [Nat Cell Biol. 2008] The spatial and temporal regulation of motor-based transport is essential to ensure precise cargo delivery in all cell types. New light has been shed on mechanisms controlling cargo–motor interactions, with the finding that NMDA-cargo is released from KIF17 kinesin following motor phosphorylation by CaMKII near the synapse.
Published in 2005
- Nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 controls fat consumption and fatty acid composition in C. elegans
- Authors: Van Gilst MR, Hadjivassiliou H, Jolly A, Yamamoto KR
- Journal: PLoS Biology
- Mammalian nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), such as liver X receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), precisely control energy metabolism. Consequently, these receptors are important targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. A thorough understanding of NHR fat regulatory networks has been limited, however, by a lack of genetically tractable experimental systems. Here we show that deletion of the Caenorhabditis elegans NHR gene nhr-49 yielded worms with elevated fat content and shortened life span. Employing a quantitative RT-PCR screen, we found that nhr-49 influenced the expression of 13 genes involved in energy metabolism. Indeed, nhr-49 served as a key regulator of fat usage, modulating pathways that control the consumption of fat and maintain a normal balance of fatty acid saturation. We found that the two phenotypes of the nhr-49 knockout were linked to distinct pathways and were separable: The high-fat phenotype was due to reduced expression of enzymes in fatty acid beta-oxidation, and the shortened adult life span resulted from impaired expression of a stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Despite its sequence relationship with the mammalian hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 receptor, the biological activities of nhr-49 were most similar to those of the mammalian PPARs, implying an evolutionarily conserved role for NHRs in modulating fat consumption and composition. Our findings in C. elegans provide novel insights into how NHR regulatory networks are coordinated to govern fat metabolism.