4.2 Article

Bioactive properties and volatile compounds of the essential oil of the leaves of giant fennel (Çaksır) growing in Turkiye



DOI: 10.1080/0972060X.2023.2255614


Giant fennel; Eudesmol; Antioxidant; Phenolics; Penicillium digitatum


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The chemical composition and antifungal activities of Ferula communis leaf essential oil were evaluated in this study. Gas chromatography and mass-selective detection were used to determine the oil's compounds, and its antioxidative activity was assessed. The essential oil exhibited antifungal activity against six foodborne saprophytic mold species, with particularly strong effects against one species.
In the present study, the chemical composition and total phenolic and flavonoid values of the essential oil (EO) of leaves of Ferula communis L. were evaluated and their in vitro antifungal activities against six foodborne saprophytic mold species were tested. Detection of the compounds of the EO was done using gas chromatography and mass-selective detection. Twenty-five different components were determined in F. communis EO, primarily including alpha-eudesmol (28.53%), beta-eudesmol (20.88%), gamma-eudesmol (10.15%), and caryophyllene oxide (9.11%). The antioxidative activity of the volatile oils was determined by DPPH (14.455 mu g/mL), ABTS (23.015 mu g/mL), and FRAP (7.945 mu mol Fe/g) methods. The total phenolic (20.091 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid (0.196 mg QE/g) compositions were also specified. The antifungal activities of the EO were investigated using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The EO showed the highest antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum (inhibition zone diameter 23.96 mm; (P<0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EO of F. communis leaves ranged from 0.0180 to 0.235 mg/L and 0.012 to 0.096 mg/L, respectively, for the foodborne saprophytic molds (P<0.05). According to the MIC/MFC ratios, the EO of F. communis exerted lethal effects on four of the studied mold species and inhibitory effects on the remaining five.


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