4.4 Article

THE INTCAL20 NORTHERN HEMISPHERE RADIOCARBON AGE CALIBRATION CURVE (0-55 CAL KBP)

Journal

RADIOCARBON
Volume 62, Issue 4, Pages 725-757

Publisher

UNIV ARIZONA DEPT GEOSCIENCES
DOI: 10.1017/RDC.2020.41

Keywords

calibration curve; radiocarbon; IntCal20

Funding

  1. National Natural Science Foundation of China [NSFC 41888101, NSFC 41731174]
  2. 111 program of China [D19002]
  3. U.S. NSF [1702816]
  4. Malcolm H. Wiener Foundation - German Science foundation
  5. Swiss National Foundation [200021L_157187]
  6. College de France
  7. Swedish Research Council
  8. Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation
  9. German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) as Research for Sustainable Development (FONA)
  10. PalMod project [01LP1505B]
  11. European Research Council under the European Union [803147-RESOLUTION]
  12. Australian Research Council [FL100100195, DP170104665]
  13. UKRI Natural Environment Research Council [NE/M004619/1]
  14. Leverhulme Trust Fellowship [RF-2019-140\9]
  15. NERC [NE/E018807/1, NRCF010002, NE/H007865/1, NE/M004619/1] Funding Source: UKRI

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Radiocarbon (C-14) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric C-14 concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international C-14 calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable C-14 offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the C-14 ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine C-14 data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.

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