47 Views · 78 Downloads · ☆☆☆☆☆ 0.0

Persistence of excitation in an online monitoring of transformer: A system identification perspective

PUBLISHED June 19, 2023 (DOI: https://doi.org/10.54985/peeref.2306p6632433)



Shadab Nayyer Syed1
  1. Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), Mumbai, India

Conference / event

Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM-22) 2022, July 2022 (Virtual)

Poster summary

For effective online monitoring to assess thermal performance and life expectancy, top-oil temperature (TOT) and hot spot temperature (HST) should be accurately estimated. The thermal-electrical analogy is used for the model based on the resistance-capacitance (RC) circuit to approximate the evolution of thermal performance. The Gradient-based estimation guarantees the convergence of the parameter estimation error to zero only when the persistence of excitation (PE) condition holds for regressor signals. As the choice of input-output data used for parameter identification is crucial, the design of experiment (DoE) is generally performed in the laboratory to satisfy PE conditions.


Hotspot, Top-oil temperature, Persistence of excitation, System identification, Tranformer

Research areas

Electrical Engineering


  1. D. Susa, M. Lehtonen, and H. Nordman, “Dynamic thermal modelling of power transformers,” IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 197–204, Feb. 2005
  2. B. C. Lesieutre, W. H. Hagman, and J. Kirtley, “An improved transformer top oil temperature model for use in an on-line monitoring and diagnostic system,” IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 249–256.
  3. Syed Shadab, J. Hozefa, K. Sonam, S. Wagh, and N. M. Singh, “Gaussian process surrogate model for an effective life assessment of transformer considering model and measurement uncertainties,” Int Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 134, p. 107401, 2022.
  4. Syed Shadab “Persistence of excitation in an Online Monitoring of Transformers", Power and Energy Society (PES) General Meeting (GM), 2022


No data provided

Supplemental files

No data provided

Additional information

Competing interests
No competing interests were disclosed.
Data availability statement
Data sharing not applicable to this poster as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study.
Creative Commons license
Copyright © 2023 Syed. This is an open access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Syed, S. Persistence of excitation in an online monitoring of transformer: A system identification perspective [not peer reviewed]. Peeref 2023 (poster).
Copy citation

Publish scientific posters with Peeref

Peeref publishes scientific posters from all research disciplines. Our Diamond Open Access policy means free access to content and no publication fees for authors.

Learn More

Become a Peeref-certified reviewer

The Peeref Institute provides free reviewer training that teaches the core competencies of the academic peer review process.

Get Started