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A review of Van Hiele's model

PUBLISHED May 22, 2023 (DOI: https://doi.org/10.54985/peeref.2305p4751812)



Edward Yalley1 , David Kirshhner1
  1. Louisiana State University

Conference / event

Graduate Research Conference 2023, April 2023 (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, United States)

Poster summary

Van Hiele (1986) and French (2014) noted students' ability in mathematics as an influence on their level of geometrical conceptual ability. Although, Asemani, Aseidu-Addo and Oppong (2017) raised similar concerns, teachers continue to employ the traditional chalk and talk method in the geometry classroom. Hence, Oladosu (2014) noted some difficulties that students face while learning geometry. Van Hiele’s model is one of the widely used theories in the teaching and learning of geometry. It has influenced classroom practices, curriculum designs and mathematical education research. The theory is about geometric learning levels. Vojkuvkova (2012) indicated that the Soviets researched the theory and integrated their findings in their curriculum; the Americans followed same in the 1970's. However, earlier studies like De Villiers and Njisane (1987) suggested otherwise. They asserted that there is some confusion within the writings about the Van Hiele theory. Hence, this study sought to review the Van Hiele model.


Thinking, Geometry, Van Hiele, Learning, Theory

Research areas

Education, Humanities and Social Sciences


  1. Asemani, E., Aseidu-Addo, S., & Oppong, R. A. (2017, June 03). European American Journals
  2. Brodie, J. (2004). Background factors affecting success in geometry.
  3. De Villiers, M., (2010). Some Reflections on Van Hiele. Proceedings of 4th Congress of Teachers of Mathematics of the Croatian Mathematical Society. Birkhäuser. 1983. Boston, USA.
  4. French, D. (2014). Teaching and Learning Geometry. Issues In Mathematics Education. Continum International Publishing Group.
  5. Kilkenny, G. (2015). The van Hiele model and learning theories: Implications for teaching and learning geometry. http://www.gerardkikenny.ie/paper.pdf
  6. Naufal, M. A; Abdullah, A. H; Osman, S.; Abu, M. S.; Ihsan, H. & Rondiyah. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, v10 n2 p597-605 Jun 2021
  7. Oladosu, L. (2014). Secondary School Students’ Meaning and Learning of Circle Geometry. Graduate Studies/The Vault: Electronic Thesis and Dissertations, http://prism.ucalgary.ca/handle/11023/1735.
  8. Van Hiele, P. M. (1986). Structure and Insight: A Theory of Mathematic Education. Orlando Florida: Academic Press.
  9. Vojkuvkova, I. (2012). The van Hiele Model of Geometric Thinking. (pp. 72-75). WDS'12 Proceedings of Contributed Papers. 1: 72-75.
  10. Yalley, E., Armah, G. & Richard Kwame Ansah, "Effect of the VAN Hiele Instructional Model on Students’ Achievement in Geometry", Education Research International, vol. 2021,


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Additional information

Competing interests
No competing interests were disclosed.
Data availability statement
Data sharing not applicable to this poster as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study.
Creative Commons license
Copyright © 2023 Yalley et al. This is an open access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Yalley, E., Kirshhner, D. A review of Van Hiele's model [not peer reviewed]. Peeref 2023 (poster).
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