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An investigative study to demonstrate the link between combined intake of marijuana and codeine in Alzheimer’s disease pathology

PUBLISHED April 25, 2023 (DOI: https://doi.org/10.54985/peeref.2304p1482702)

NOT PEER REVIEWED

Authors

Adejoke Memudu1 , Ruth Waziri2
  1. Edo State University, Uzairue, Nigeria
  2. Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria

Conference / event

AAIC Neuroscience Next, April 2021 (Virtual)

Poster summary

The abuse of psychedelic drugs like marijuana, codeine, etc had deleterious effect when taken singly. In this study we assessed potential contributory role of combined ingestion of codeine and Marijuana on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease which is the most common cause of dementia among older adults done by studying changes in spatial memory, astrocytic proliferation, Nissl bodies, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme status using animal models. Behavioral tests for memory using Y maze. Brain tissues were processed and stained for Nissl bodies and astrocytes. The prefronto-hippocampal cortex of rats exposed to Codeine and Marijuana had severe loss of neurons, necrosis, chromatolysis and proliferation of astrocytes, loss of spatial memory, reduced number of arm entries and increased immobility time. Hence, the combine use of codeine and marijuana has deleterious effects on neuron cell integrity, memory, cognition because it induces oxidative tissue damage an hallmark in the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords

Codeine, Astrocytes, Memory loss, Neurons, Hippocampus, Codeine

Research areas

Anatomy and Physiology, Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Toxicology

References

  1. Akhigbe R, Ajayi A (2020) Testicular toxicity following chronic codeine administration is via oxidative DNA damage and up-regulation of NO/TNF-α and caspase 3 activities. PLoS ONE 15(3): e0224052. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224052
  2. Archibong V, B.B., Ekanem, T.B., Anozeng O. Igiri, Ann M. Lemuel, Ibe M. Usman, Akeem A. Okesina & Nsisong J. Obosi | Tsai-Ching Hsu (Reviewing editor) (2020) Immunohistochemical studies of codeine medication on the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of adult Wistar rats, Cogent Medicine, 7:1, DOI: 10.1080/2331205X.2020.1824390
  3. Akinola, O., Ogbeche, E. O., Olumoh-Abdul, H. A., Alli-Oluwafuyi, A. O., Oyewole, A. L., Amin, A., AbdulMajeed, W. I., Olajide, O. J., Nafiu, A. B., Njan, A. A., Olorundare, O. E., & Gbotosho, G. O. (2018). Oral Ingestion of Cannabis sativa: Risks, Benefits, and Effects on Malaria-Infected Hosts. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 3(1), 219–227. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2018.0043
  4. Barbosa, J.; Faria, J.; Garcez, F.; Leal, S.; Afonso, L.P.; Nascimento, A.V.; Moreira, R.; Pereira, F.C.; Queirós, O.; Carvalho, F.; Dinis-Oliveira, R.J. Repeated Administration of Clinically Relevant Doses of the Prescription Opioids Tramadol and Tapentadol Causes Lung, Cardiac, and Brain Toxicity in Wistar Rats. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14020097

Funding

  1. NONE

Supplemental files

No data provided

Additional information

Competing interests
No competing interests were disclosed.
Data availability statement
The datasets generated during and / or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Creative Commons license
Copyright © 2023 Memudu et al. This is an open access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Memudu, A., Waziri, R. An investigative study to demonstrate the link between combined intake of marijuana and codeine in Alzheimer’s disease pathology [not peer reviewed]. Peeref 2023 (poster).
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